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        歡迎訪問華夏歷史網

        華夏歷史網_中國歷史故事_中國歷史朝代順序表_揭秘隱藏的歷史真相

        俄羅斯宗教有哪些

        時間:2018-05-21 14:14來源:華夏歷史網 點擊:

        俄羅斯   

        俄羅斯聯邦境內共有10余種宗教,主要有東正教天主教新教伊斯蘭教佛教猶太教薩滿教等。

        古時候,東斯拉夫人信奉多神教,把所有自然現象解釋為神的作用,祭祀惡神和善神。

        10世紀中葉,東正教由拜占庭傳入基輔羅斯。公元998年,基輔羅斯大公弗拉基米爾率先受洗加入東正教,并宣布東正教為國教,命令全國居民在第聶伯河中受洗,皈依東正教。到11世紀末,東正教已傳遍俄羅斯全境。

        20世紀80~90年代,俄羅斯的宗教組織發展迅速,根據俄羅斯官方1993年的統計,俄羅斯全國共有8612個宗教組織,其中4566個屬俄羅斯東正教教會,2537個屬伊斯蘭教組織,其余為各教派組織。

        俄羅斯國內大多數居民信奉東正教,教徒約有7000萬,占全國人口的一半左右。信奉者主要包括俄羅斯人、烏克蘭人、白俄羅斯人,北部的卡累利阿人、薩阿姆人、科米人,伏爾加河中下游的莫爾多瓦人、馬里人、烏德穆爾特人、楚科奇人等。

        伊斯蘭教是俄羅斯的第二大宗教。俄羅斯伊斯蘭教的歷史從1552年伊凡四世的軍隊征服喀山汗國開始,其主要信徒是伏爾加河中下游的巴什基爾人、韃靼人,高加索的卡巴爾達人、阿塞拜疆人,生活在俄羅斯的中亞人,包括塔吉克人、吉爾吉斯人、烏茲別克人、土庫曼人、卡拉卡爾帕人、哈薩克人、東干人等。俄羅斯伊斯蘭教徒大多數都是遜尼教派。

        俄羅斯的天主教信徒主要是生活在俄羅斯的立陶宛人、烏克蘭人、拉脫維亞人、白俄羅斯人、愛沙尼亞人等。

        在俄羅斯流行的佛教主要是17世紀由蒙藏地區傳入的藏語系佛教,俗稱喇嘛教。17世紀30年代,卡爾梅克人首先受到蒙古佛教徒的影響,而后佛教又從蒙古、西藏傳入俄國葉尼塞河上游的圖瓦。

        俄羅斯佛教分大乘和小乘兩派。教徒主要分布在西伯利亞和遠東的布里亞特、卡爾梅克和圖瓦三個共和國以及伊爾庫茨克州和赤塔州的布里亞特民族區。全俄共有喇嘛300個,教徒50萬左右,大多數是布里亞特人、卡爾梅克人、朝鮮族人和蒙古族人。

        新教是基督教三大教派之一,16世紀從天主教中分裂出來。新教本身又分為許多派系,俄羅斯新教亦有眾多派系,其中浸會倡議派是新教中較為活躍的一派。

        猶太教是在民族遷徙過程中傳入俄國的,迄今已有數百年歷史。20世紀80年代后期以來,大批猶太人移居國外,今天俄羅斯境內的猶太人已從180萬減少到53萬。

        薩滿教是一種原始的宗教,它的主要特征是多神崇拜。“薩滿”意為“巫”。因此,該教不但舉行祭祀神靈的宗教活動,還負有“驅邪治病”的使命,例如巫婆跳神。在俄羅斯,信仰薩滿教的主要有西伯利亞和北部的涅涅茨人、曼西人、漢特人、埃文克人、雅庫特人、楚科奇人、科里亞克人、北阿爾泰人以及西布里亞特人等。

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