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        歡迎訪問華夏歷史網

        華夏歷史網_中國歷史故事_中國歷史朝代順序表_揭秘隱藏的歷史真相

        佛教在俄羅斯的發展歷史

        時間:2018-05-21 15:48來源:華夏歷史網 點擊:

        佛教   俄羅斯   

        14世紀,佛教通過蒙古傳入西伯利亞。17世紀,佛教在俄國已經打下堅實的根基,主要分布在布里亞特和卡爾梅克地區。

        俄國一直以古老的東正教和布爾什維克為世人所了解。16世紀末,佛教以戲劇般的方式從蒙古傳播到冰天雪地的西伯利亞。

        當時,蒙古統治者俺答汗在佛教傳播中發揮了建設性作用。起初,蒙古的佛教僧侶和西藏同伴在馬背上帶著帳篷,來到西伯利亞和任何他們發現有人居住的地方,搭好帳篷,在里面供上釋迦牟尼像,然后開始傳教,這就是臨時的佛教寺院“杜甘”。

        佛教在俄羅斯的發展歷史_佛教在俄羅斯怎么發展的

        此后,這些臨時的寺院轉換成永久的木質建筑,尤其是在奧納河、烏拉河、色楞格河和安加拉河等西伯利亞河流的沿岸,這就是眾所周知的佛教寺院“扎倉”。

        1741年,沙皇扎林娜·伊麗莎白·彼得羅夫娜通過一項法令,宣布佛教為俄國的官方宗教之一,另外三個官方宗教是東正教、伊斯蘭教和猶太教。

        隨著佛教成為俄國的官方宗教,俄國在布里亞特民眾中的影響得到相當大的提升。

        進入20世紀以來,佛教呈現出新的發展態勢,不同的佛教哲學和醫學學派在西伯利亞很多地方繁榮起來。

        1917年十月革命之后,最悲慘的境況擺在了俄國佛教徒面前。

        1918年1月23日,蘇俄政府以人民委員會政令的形式發布了一部關于宗教生活的法令,即《關于教會同國家分離和學校同教會分離的法令》,要求建立一個完全世俗的國家,并賦予公民信仰任何宗教和不信宗教的權利。

        十月革命剛剛結束,西伯利亞的佛教領袖阿旺·德爾智就試圖與布爾什維克合作。他認為佛教和共產主義能夠聯合在一起,因為兩者的哲學基礎相似,即都反對資本主義,信奉無神論。起初,列寧同意俄國佛教徒合法活動。德爾智還受邀同列寧、斯大林、布哈林一起參加蘇共政治局召開的一個討論民族問題的特殊會議。

        由于國內戰爭和外國武裝的干涉,對蘇俄這個社會主義國家的生存而言,1918~1920年是一個極為嚴峻的時期,因此沒有多少反對宗教的活動。但1924年列寧去世后,布爾什維克黨領導層開始出現反宗教的情緒,到1929年,事態具體化了,斯大林發起反宗教運動,并且一直持續到1938年。

        1989年,米哈伊爾·戈爾巴喬夫倡導的“新思維和公開性”為佛教帶來了新生。1991年,在俄國官方承認佛教250周年時,蘇聯佛教徒舉行了一個盛大的慶祝活動。這次活動是由布里亞特共和國政府主辦的。隨后,被摧毀的古老寺院得到重建和復興。

        蘇聯解體后,佛教僧侶在不同的場合宣揚和平的主張,要求停止格羅茲尼的流血戰爭,并且一直持續到1996年。俄國佛教徒反對車臣戰爭的主要口號是“為了生命”。我們可以看到,佛教作為一支嶄新而強大的力量又出現在俄羅斯歷史的舞臺上。

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