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        歡迎訪問華夏歷史網

        華夏歷史網_中國歷史故事_中國歷史朝代順序表_揭秘隱藏的歷史真相

        古埃及怎么統一的

        時間:2018-06-04 15:34來源:華夏歷史網 點擊:

        埃及是世界上四大文明古國之一,它位于非洲大陸的東北角,孕育了埃及文明的尼羅河穿過它的全境。人類史的研究表明,埃及這片土地是最早出現先進發達人類文明的地方。遠在公元前5000年左右,古埃及就已經出現了文明城市,并且進入了階級社會。而在同時期,其他大陸上的人們還在過著原始狀態下的生活。

        但當它剛剛進入奴隸社會時,并不是一個統一的國家,它當時被分成上、下埃及兩部分,各部分又都有獨立的統治機構。后來,下埃及被上埃及征服,形成了一個統一的古埃及奴隸制國家。可是,究竟是誰統一了古埃及呢?至今無史料可查。

        古埃及怎么統一的_古埃及統一的歷史

        古希臘史學家希拉多德曾這樣寫道:公元前3100年左右,埃及第一王朝的國王美尼斯征服了埃及,建立了埃及歷史上大體統一的國家。但是,現代史學家們對他的這種觀點都抱有懷疑態度,因為研究埃及的學者們翻遍了古埃及的所有史料、文物,始終沒找到任何關于美尼斯王曾在埃及歷史上存在過的線索。

        而在非史實性文獻中,美尼斯卻被描繪得十分完美,完全稱得上是精神文明的楷模。因此一些學者認為,美尼斯不是真實的歷史人物,很可能是有人根據古埃及早期幾個統治者的事跡進行加工臆造的理想君王。美尼斯是神話中的人物,是神王。

        但是也有人認為美尼斯可能是古埃及第一王朝的那爾邁王。因為在著名的古埃及文物“那爾邁調色板”上,那爾邁好像是以上、下埃及之王的形象出現的。

        “那爾邁調色板”是5000多年前制作的,是在耶拉孔波利斯古城的何露斯(隼鷹之神)神廟下出土的。和所有的古代調色板一樣,這塊調色板上也刻畫著一些裝飾圖案和象形文字。只是它的圖案反映了那爾邁王的一段豐功偉績。幾個畫面展現了那爾邁王在何露斯神的庇佑下,奪得了“紙草之國”的情景。在調色板正面的畫面中,那爾邁王戴著紅色的王冠,而在反面的畫面內,他頭戴白冠。這是一個很重要的信息,因為根據對埃及歷史的研究,在古埃及,紅冠是上埃及王權的象征,白冠是下埃及王權的象征。根據“調色板”的圖案人們斷定,那爾邁既是上埃及之王,也是下埃及之王,也就是說,在那爾邁的統治過程中,上、下埃及就已經統一了。根據這種觀點,這些學者認為:美尼斯就是那爾邁。

        可是,有很多學者不贊成這個觀點。因為他們也從埃及歷史研究中找到了有利的依據。

        這個四大文明古國之一的古埃及到底是由誰來完成統一的,是何時被統一的呢?至今仍無定論,還需要有關學者繼續研究探索。

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