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        歡迎訪問華夏歷史網

        華夏歷史網_中國歷史故事_中國歷史朝代順序表_揭秘隱藏的歷史真相

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        五聲和七音分別是什么

        時間:2018-06-12 16:00來源:華夏歷史網 點擊:

        五聲是宮、商、角、徵、羽五個音級的合稱,也稱五音。五音的五個階名分別是一宮、二商、三角、四徵、五羽,分別對應于簡譜中的1(do)、2(re)、3(mi)、5(sol)、6(la)。我國幾種傳統的音階形式,無論是古音階、新音階、清商音階,還是五聲音階或六聲音階、七聲音階,其中都包含這五個音級。

        五聲和七音分別是什么_五聲和七音簡介

        在同一個五聲音階的音列中,分別以各音作為主音時,就構成不同的調式,此時即根據主音的階名來命名調式。例如以宮音為主音時,就命名為宮調;以商音為主音時,就是商調。依此類推有角調、徵調、羽調。《淮南子》有“一律而生五音”,“律”在這里指的就是主音,這句話講的就是根據主音來確定調式。例如陜北民歌《山丹丹開花紅艷艷》就是商調。在不同的音樂和音階形式中,五聲都是重要的音級。

        在我國傳統樂學理論中,宮聲被認為是音階組織中最重要的一個音級,《國語·周語下》伶州鳩論音樂時說:“夫宮,音之主也。”傳統樂學一般以宮音的音高為標準來確定曲調的高低,宮音的音高位置確定后,商、角、徵、羽等各音的位置也就隨之而確定。

        七音是七聲音階及其七個音級的總稱,或稱為七律。《左傳·昭公二十五年》子產論樂:“為九歌、八風、七音、六律,以奉五聲。”《國語·周語下》伶州鳩論樂:“故以七同其數,而以律和其聲,于是乎有七律。”七音、七律,都是七聲音階的意思。七音的七個階名分別是一宮、二商、三角、四變徵、五徵、六羽、七變宮,變徵近似于簡譜中的4(fa),變宮近似于7(si)。可見七音是由五聲演變而來的,傳統樂學理論將五聲稱為正聲,把隨音階形式的差別而改變位置的另外兩個音(四變徵、七變宮)叫做二變,變徵是徵的低半音,變宮是宮的低半音。

        五聲和七音都是我國古代音樂的基本結構要素。據史料記載,在晉代以后,五聲和七音都曾用來表達弦序或不同調式中的各個音級的次序,而不拘泥于各個階名所約定的音程關系。例如,宮字僅表明它是某種調式的音節第一級,商字僅表明它是所屬音階的第二級。

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