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        歡迎訪問華夏歷史網

        華夏歷史網_中國歷史故事_中國歷史朝代順序表_揭秘隱藏的歷史真相

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        大寫金額怎么來的

        時間:2018-06-26 15:49來源:華夏歷史網 點擊:

        “壹貳叁肆伍陸柒捌玖拾”的數字大寫是10個“小寫數字”的同音別字,中國古人發明的金額大寫,成為防范篡改數字進行經濟犯罪的有效措施。那么,大寫數字究竟是誰發明的呢?金額大寫始于何時?

        在朱元璋執政的明朝初年,史書記載有四大案件轟動一時,其中的“郭桓重大貪污案”更是震驚朝野。郭桓曾擔任戶部侍郎,任職期間,他利用職權勾結地方官吏,其作案的招數就是利用空白賬冊大做假賬,通過篡改數字大肆侵吞錢糧,其貪污的數量累計達兩千四百萬石精糧,這個數字差不多與當時全國秋糧的實征總數相等。案件涉及的朝廷高官達12名、6個部的大小官員和全國許多地方官僚地主牽連其中。

        大寫金額怎么來的_大寫金額怎么發明的_大寫金額的歷史

        朱元璋對“郭桓貪污案”大為震怒,親自下令將郭桓等同案犯數萬人斬首示眾。為反貪樹廉,朱元璋還制定了嚴格的懲治經濟犯罪的法令,在全國財務管理上實行了一系列有效措施,其中最重要的一條就是把記載錢糧數字的漢字“一二三四五六七八九十百千”,改為難以涂改的大寫“壹貳叁肆伍陸柒捌玖拾佰仟”。因此,有人認為中國歷史上金額數字大寫的首創者應為朱元璋。

        然而,也有人認為金額數字大寫早在明太祖朱元璋之前就已經被廣泛使用,明末清初考據家顧炎武的考證即可作為印證。顧炎武在《金石文字記·岱岳觀造像記》中曾推斷:“凡數字作壹、貳、叁、肆、伍、陸、柒、捌、玖等,皆武后所改及自制字。”顧炎武認為,武則天除了發明了“曌”等很多“自制字”,數字大寫也是她首創的。

        因為武則天時期所立的石碑,上面多有大寫數字。此外,那一時期的詩文中也常見大寫數字,如白居易的宋版《白氏長慶集》中《論行營狀請勒魏博等四道兵馬卻守本界事》有這樣的記述:“況其軍一月之費,計實錢貳拾漆(柒)捌萬貫。”由此可見,武則天的大寫數字比朱元璋早了近700年,距今已有1300多年。

        到了宋代,朝廷的官府文書所用計數數字都得用大寫。據宋代學者程大昌《演繁露·十數改用畫字》一書中記載:“今官府文書凡計其數,皆取聲同而畫多者改用之。于是壹、貳、叁、肆之類,本皆非數,直是取同聲之字,借以為用,貴點畫多不可改換為奸耳。”

        其實,中國歷史上的數字大寫可以追溯到更早的漢晉時期。《西游記》中有一段故事,講的是唐太宗李世民病危,奄奄一息。大臣魏徵知他的魂魄已到陰間,便托陰間舊友判官崔玨設法營救。當崔判官翻閱生死簿時,見到唐太宗的死期是貞觀一十三年,就將一十三年的“一”上添加了二畫,篡改成三十三年。

        后來閻王見生死簿上唐太宗名下還有二十年陽壽,便讓李世民返本還陽了。小說雖為虛構,但也說明了有些數字確實存在容易篡改的缺陷。因此,自西漢起大寫數字已開始流行。上世紀五十年代,在新疆阿斯塔那墓出土的《唐麟德元年(公元664年)西州高昌縣里正史玄政納當年官貸小子抄》中就曾記載:“崇化鄉里正史玄政納麟德元年官貸小子貳斗,其年十二月叁拾日。”

        意思是說,麟德元年十二月三十日,崇化鄉里正史玄政向倉史交納了貳斗官貸小麥利息。在《高昌延昌二十七年(公元587年)六月兵部條列買馬用錢頭數奏行文書》也有“都合買馬壹匹,用銀錢肆拾伍文”的大寫數字出現。這些大寫數字盡管是“偶有發現”,卻足以說明武則天之前的東晉時期人們已開始在券契中使用大寫數字。

        作為“小寫數字”的同音別字,古人發明的“大寫數字”原本另有其意。比如,壹為專一;貳為變節;叁是“參”的另一種寫法,表示加入;肆的本意為任意妄為;伍在古代有“五人為伍”之說;陸原意是指高出水面的而地勢平坦的土地;柒是漆樹或漆料;捌為聚攏谷物的沒有齒的耙;玖是黑色的美石;拾則為撿。

        毋庸置疑,數字大寫其實是古人長期的生產和生活實踐中智慧的結晶,武則天只是承襲了民間的寫法,并使大寫數字得到了普及,朱元璋則是出于防范經濟犯罪的考慮,在全國范圍內大規模強制實施完整的數字大寫規定,使金額大寫得到了進一步的完善和規范。

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