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        華夏歷史網_中國歷史故事_中國歷史朝代順序表_揭秘隱藏的歷史真相

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        皇太極皇位是奪來的還是繼承的

        時間:2018-06-25 17:00來源:華夏歷史網 點擊:

        皇太極   

        關于皇太極是如何繼位的問題,有不同的說法。

        一些明清史專家認為,皇太極汗位是從其幼弟多爾袞手中篡奪來的。清人蔣良騏的《東華錄》順治八年(1651)二月己亥詔內載,多爾袞聲稱“太宗文皇帝(皇太極)之位原系奪立”,暗示皇太極篡奪汗位。據說,努爾哈赤生前已立多爾袞為嗣子,而皇太極用陰謀狡詐的手段從其幼弟手中奪取了汗位,為去除篡位障礙,還逼迫多爾袞生母大妃納喇氏死殉。

        皇太極皇位怎么來的_皇太極皇位是奪來的還是繼承的

        此說受到一些人懷疑,當時多爾袞才15歲,既無功業,亦無威望,故不可能立多爾袞為嗣。皇太極即位后,對多爾袞“特加愛重”,大力培養提拔,多爾袞對皇太極的恩育萬分感念,盡心盡力輔佐皇太極,勛勞卓著,成為皇太極最得力的助手。皇太極與多爾袞兄弟感情較好,皇太極對多爾袞干下篡位、殺母的勾當是不太可能的。

        有的則認為,皇太極的汗位是通過激烈爭斗,力克競爭對手而得到的。努爾哈赤死后,皇太極與諸貝勒爭奪汗位的斗爭白熱化,最后皇太極擊敗對手自立為汗。其間,皇太極與代善的爭斗尤為激烈,代善有勛績、有聲望也有勢力,長期以來一直是汗位的有力競爭者,皇太極抓住一切機會打擊代善,如利用代善與大妃納喇氏的曖昧關系,推波助瀾,借助輿論,促使努爾哈赤罷黜大妃,代善威望遭受損害。努爾哈赤死后,又逼大妃死殉,削弱代善的勢力,最后壓服代善,奪取汗位。

        還有學者認為,皇太極汗位并非奪立的,而是由諸貝勒推舉產生的。太祖努爾哈赤生前未立嗣子,而是確立了八和碩貝勒共治國政的制度,為汗者須請貝勒推舉產生的。當時諸貝勒中,數皇太極實力最強,努爾哈赤死去當天,代善長子勸代善說:“四大貝勒(皇太極)才德冠世,深契先帝圣心,眾皆悅服,當速繼大位。”代善表示同意。次日,在諸貝勒大臣聚于朝時,代善提議舉皇太極為汗,諸貝勒“皆喜曰善。議遂定,乃合詞請上即位”。

        按當時情況,民主推舉皇太極為汗還是有可能的。因為在政治識見、軍事才能和個人威望上,皇太極都高出諸貝勒一籌,推舉才能卓著的皇太極即位是不足為怪的。

        明熹宗天啟六年(公元1626年),愛新覺羅·皇太極在諸多貝勒的商議下,被一致推舉、擁戴為皇位繼承人。35歲的愛新覺羅·皇太極在這一年的九月初一正式登上后金的汗位,并決定第二年改元為“天聰”。清太宗天聰十年(公元1636年)四月十一日,愛新覺羅·皇太極將國號改為“大清”,正式稱帝,并改元為“崇德”,女真也改為滿洲。愛新覺羅·皇太極成為了大清王朝的第一個皇帝。

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