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        歡迎訪問華夏歷史網

        華夏歷史網_中國歷史故事_中國歷史朝代順序表_揭秘隱藏的歷史真相

        當前位置: 華夏歷史網 > 中國歷史 >

        北魏孝文帝改革

        時間:2018-01-18 17:34來源:華夏歷史網 點擊:

        北魏   孝文帝   

        到第三代皇帝拓跋燾當政時,北魏已經滅掉了夏、北燕、北涼,北方像前秦那樣走向了久違的統一。于是,“文明”尾隨而至。

        事實上,文明從來不會在同一地點停留太久,通常它會在地圖上蜿蜒曲折地移動。在晉朝長滿蒿草的高墻內駐足一段時間后,文明似乎在嘟囔:“唉,我和這些已經變得懶惰和猜疑的人待在一起太久了。”于是收拾起書籍、樂器、科學,開始了新一輪的漫游。它輾轉來到了新生的北魏,因為這里是一片創新、開放、追求文明的沃土。

        北魏孝文帝改革

        茁壯成長的北魏第六代皇帝孝文帝拓跋宏不滿足于做一個半野蠻民族的國王,他決意要做一個文明國家的主宰。但是將北魏從一個草原游牧部落轉變為一個農業帝國絕非易事,需要強有力的手腕和精明的頭腦。更重要的是,要有足以壓倒保守勢力的堅強后盾。而這一切,小皇帝正好全部具備。

        這是一個中國歷史難以忘卻的時代。從北魏孝文帝延興元年(471)開始,在祖母馮太后支持下,孝文帝頂住豪強大族的壓力,實施了將封建中國移植到原始草原民族的偉大手術。國家規定,官吏按季度領取俸祿,嚴禁貪污,貪贓絹一匹即處以死刑;第一次在刑法中明令禁止對女性犯人的“裸形處決”,堅決維護了中國女性最起碼的人權;把掌握的土地分配給農民,農民向國家繳納租稅并承擔一定的徭役;下令鮮卑貴族改漢姓公元496年,拓跋宏下令將鮮卑復姓改為單音漢姓,皇族拓跋氏改姓元,定為最高門第;丘穆陵氏改姓穆,步六孤氏改姓陸,獨孤氏改姓劉,賀賴氏改姓賀,賀樓氏改姓樓,勿忸于氏改姓于,紇奚氏改姓嵇,尉遲氏改姓尉,以上八姓為功勛之家。此后,118個鮮卑復姓全部消失。穿漢服,說漢話,提倡與漢族通婚。孝文帝帶頭娶漢族女子為妃,并把公主嫁給了漢人。孝文帝還力排眾議,把都城從地處高原的平城遷到四季分明的洛陽。

        文明太后(馮太后的死后謚號)去世三年之后的太和十七年(493)秋天,孝文帝率領20萬大軍親征南朝。在多數王公大臣極力反對遷都的情況下,孝文帝費盡了苦心,名義上是南征,事實上孝文帝是要借南征使自己的部族徹底擺脫落后的生產和生活習慣,把顛沛流離的拓跋鮮卑融入漢民族的文明歷史之中。秋天的氣候突然變得很冷,一路上秋雨瀟瀟,鮮卑大軍踏著泥濘一直向南行進。越向南走,北魏貴族和將士越不適應氣候,近百年來在平城養尊處優的生活已經耗盡了一個馬背民族的剽悍和豪氣,他們已經無法忍受艱苦的日子,直到他們無可奈何地在中原洛陽停下來,車輪和馬蹄聲止歇于新的都城里。

        就這樣,一個偉大的民族在一千五百年前隱沒在從平城到洛陽的歷史古道上,消失在深秋的凄風苦雨中。

        孝文帝的漢化改革加速了北方各族封建化的進程,促進了北方民族的大融合,也使北魏步入了一個空前的盛世。翻開從秦到清的歷史長卷,作為一名從草原上走來的少數民族領袖,能夠洞察本民族的封閉落后,勇敢拋棄不合潮流的陳規舊制,采外來文明之優長為我所用,集兄弟民族之智慧共建家園者,孝文帝乃先行者。在這里,我們不免為把國人分為四等的忽必烈而汗顏,更為強令漢人剃發的多爾袞而臉紅。

        更令人驚喜的是,鮮卑將草原般開闊的心胸帶到了中原,將豪邁而奔放的胡人血液融入了溫順而文雅的漢人血管,從而造就了偉大而開放的隋唐盛世。

        可以說,孝文帝開通了一條通往隋唐的路--一條無限寬闊的強盛之路。

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