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        歡迎訪問華夏歷史網

        華夏歷史網_中國歷史故事_中國歷史朝代順序表_揭秘隱藏的歷史真相

        趙括只會紙上談兵嗎

        時間:2018-06-29 15:19來源:華夏歷史網 點擊:

        趙括   

        趙括是戰國時期趙國馬服君趙奢之子,出身名門,自幼熟讀兵書,對軍事方面有自己的見解,少年時代即隨父親趙奢出戰。少年趙括曾獻計幫助父親一個月之內攻下了趙軍久攻不下的麥丘。公元前270年,趙括運用反間計,成功地解救了瘀與地區,因此揚名。

        趙括只會紙上談兵嗎_趙括警備冤枉了這么多年

        在公元前260年長平之戰爆發之始,趙括沒有任何實際帶兵打仗的經驗,在軍隊中他更多地扮演了軍師的角色。公元前260年,秦王命王齡進攻韓國上黨地區,并且順利地占領該地區,但是上黨地區早在兩年前已歸屬于趙國,此次秦進攻上黨,趙孝成王就派名將廉頗出戰,廉頗駐軍長平,與秦軍交戰,采取了自己不擅長的消耗堅守戰略,秦軍不斷吞食趙軍,完全占領了上黨地區,這對趙國都城邯鄲十分不利。

        因此,趙國內部出現了混亂,不斷有人提出建議,換下廉頗。最終,趙王聽取樂毅的建議,由趙括取代廉頗,對戰秦軍。趙括率領四十萬大軍,改守為攻,主動全線出擊,向秦進攻。秦將白起分兵兩路:一路佯敗,把趙軍吸引到秦軍壁壘周圍;一路切斷趙軍后路,實行反包圍,使趙軍糧道斷絕而困于長平。最終,趙括突圍不成,戰死長平,四十余萬趙兵盡被坑殺。

        綜上,有幾點值得注意

        一、趙括雖然有跟隨趙奢出征的經歷,但是從來沒有獨立為將、帶兵打仗的經驗。雖有謀略,但是卻缺乏實際作戰經驗,大多數戰功只是靠“軍師”而得來。因此,在關鍵的時候,趙括上陣打仗,取得成功的可能性并不是很高。

        二、在經過了趙惠文王策劃的“沙丘之亂”之后,趙國的國力逐漸削弱。趙國的實際情況根本就支撐不了長久的消耗戰,讓趙括上任之后,除了速戰速決以外,更無任何選擇。

        三、趙括上任以后,大量修訂軍紀,把廉頗規定的一套制度全部廢除,這一番大刀闊斧的改革是趙括經驗不足的表現。

        四、趙括的舉動是“紙上談兵”的關鍵,即趙括在戰役之中所采用的戰略戰術。當時秦軍在西、趙軍在東,秦軍以西是河水很寬很深的泌水,趙軍以東是河水很寬但水淺的丹水,兩軍之南是太行、王屋山脈,北面也是太行山的山脈,整個戰場由山脈和河水組成了一個矩形。但是,南面的山脈已由秦軍所占,北面的山脈為秦趙共同占有。因此,無論是哪支軍隊要全身而退,都只有選擇水路,要么是涉水渡過丹水,要么是乘船渡過沁水。

        趙括決定派晉陽趙軍南下支援沁水西岸的趙軍,控制沁水西岸一帶,再向西進攻秦軍,配合自己的大軍東西夾擊秦軍。但是,趙括沒有想到的是,沁水西岸的趙軍并沒有完成自己的命令,未能控制沁水西岸,所以當趙括大軍一路追隨不斷向西撤退的秦軍至沁水河東岸時,不但沒有消滅秦軍,反而使自己陷入了秦軍的包圍圈之中。最后,秦軍騙降趙軍,兩軍再戰,死傷無數,趙軍四十萬大軍終因力竭而敗,趙拓自殺殉國。

        其實,趙括的部署可謂得當,只是趙皮牢、晉陽二軍未能完成任務。所以,趙括在長平之戰中并不是“紙上談兵”。

         

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