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        歡迎訪問華夏歷史網

        華夏歷史網_中國歷史故事_中國歷史朝代順序表_揭秘隱藏的歷史真相

        李自成兵敗后去哪了

        時間:2018-06-29 17:09來源:華夏歷史網 點擊:

        李自成   

        李自成的大部分部下被勝利沖昏了頭腦,他們整日不是狎妓取樂,便是做著新朝登基的春秋大夢。明朝的半壁江山還沒有打下來,當時的形勢依然還很復雜。將軍李巖給他提了四條建議:一是不要急于稱帝;二是頒布的貪官追贓法令要嚴格按律執行,在政局還不夠穩定的時候尤其要嚴明法紀,對于實在貪污嚴重者可以殺,其余都可以不予追究,對于那些清廉的官員更要在政策上保護,以爭取這部分人的支持;三是嚴明軍紀,一切軍士均不得擾民,違令者斬;四是明朝各地握有軍隊的官員現處于觀望狀態,切不可興兵討伐,如若討伐必將陷大順于萬劫不復之境地。可以采取安撫的策略,賜侯封爵未嘗不可。

        李自成兵敗后去哪了_李自成兵敗后的下落之謎

        可是李自成沒有采納這四條建議,入京不足一月便被迫出走,一場浩浩蕩蕩的農民起義就這樣結束了。

        兵敗后李自成帶余部南撤,途中遭遇圍追堵截、屢戰屢敗,后闖王不知所蹤,成為歷史之謎。

        關于戰敗后的李自成究竟下落何方,有兩種說法。

        一說客死九宮山。這個說法來自當時清朝名將愛新覺羅·阿濟格,他是在山海關大破李自成農民軍的重要將領之一,他對李自成如何殉難是這樣解釋的:“李自成竄走時,隨身只有士兵20人左右,在九宮山被山民圍困,不能逃脫,然后自縊而死。”但阿濟格并非親眼所見,不足為信。

        據明末清初詩人吳偉業的《綏寇紀略》中有關于李自成兵敗九宮山的記述:“至九宮山,獨自上山謁元帝廟,當地山民誤以為是盜賊首領‘碎其首’而亡。”而費密的《荒書》記述:“李自成率十八騎,由通山過九宮山嶺。”被山民圍攻,十八騎被殺,李自成和山民程九伯搏斗,不慎被程九伯外甥金某從背后襲擊致死。

        二說夾山靈泉寺隱匿

        澧州知州何璘首先否定了清廷關于李自成死于九宮山的說法,他在《李自成傳》中稱,兵敗后李自成逃到夾山削發為僧,法名奉天玉和尚(因為李自成曾號稱自己是奉天倡義大元帥)。而且何璘還去實地考察過,說他見到一個操著陜西方言自稱曾經服侍過奉天玉和尚的老人,并且他還有奉天玉和尚的畫像,據說畫上的和尚與當時史書上闖王的模樣極為相似。

        在奉天玉和尚的墓葬中發現的很多遺物以及《塔銘》都與何璘記述寺內的遺物和皇室玉器極為吻合,而且從夾山寺里發現了只有君王才能使用到的石雕龜形敕印,這似乎在向研究者說明這個奉天玉和尚就是李自成。

        由于關于李自成起義的很多文獻資料都不知所蹤,所以我們不能真實地了解當時的情況,進而對這位起義領袖的歸宿也不得而知,因此關于李自成失敗后的結局就成為一個歷史疑案,有待后人評說。

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