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        歡迎訪問華夏歷史網

        華夏歷史網_中國歷史故事_中國歷史朝代順序表_揭秘隱藏的歷史真相

        三國魏明帝曹叡:選用忠良明察斷獄的一時明主

        時間:2017-08-03 16:34來源:華夏歷史網 點擊:

        曹叡   魏明帝   高平陵   

        魏明帝曹叡(204年-239年1月22日),字元仲,沛國譙縣(今安徽亳州)人,魏文帝曹丕長子,母文昭皇后甄氏,三國時期曹魏第二位皇帝,公元226年-239年在位。曹叡能詩文,與曹操、曹丕并稱魏氏“三祖”,文學成就不及曹操、曹丕。原有集,已散佚,后人輯有其散文二卷、樂府詩十余首。 

        魏明帝曹叡:選用忠良明察斷獄的一時明主

        曹叡二十三歲即位,在位期間指揮曹真、司馬懿等人成功防御了吳、蜀的多次攻伐,并且平定鮮卑,攻滅公孫淵,頗有建樹。然而統治后期,大興土木,耽于享樂。景初二年(238年),曹叡病逝于洛陽,時年36歲,廟號烈祖,謚號明皇帝,葬于高平陵。因其臨終前托孤不當,導致后來朝政動蕩。

        綜觀曹叡之行事,優缺點各占一半,其優點是善為軍計、明察斷獄、比較能客人直諫。曹叡在容受直言、不殺諫臣方面,在古代封建君主中是少見的,這算是他的特色。曹叡的最大缺點是奢淫過度,還有一個重要的失誤,則在確定繼承人和輔政大臣方面。

        曹叡處事沉著、剛毅,明識善斷,即位不久就政由己出,使幾個輔政大臣形同虛設。同時注重法理。他詔令設置律博士,改革漢法,制訂新律。又下令刪簡死刑條款,減少死罪;除死刑外,可以用財贖罪;減鞭杖之刑,以免苦打成招。

        在他曹叡登基不久,就遇到內外敵人的攻擊,黃初七年(226年)八月孫權攻江夏、襄陽,太和元年(227年)孟達反叛,太和五年(231年),鮮卑與蜀漢聯手進犯, 到青龍二年(234年)為止諸葛亮五次進攻曹魏,234年孫權攻合肥。魏明帝成功地抵御了這些內外戰爭。他重用曹真、張郃、司馬懿等名將與諸葛亮作戰。235年諸葛亮死后,魏蜀邊境上的情況有所減緩。同年,軻比能被曹魏派遣的刺客所殺,鮮卑“種落離散,互相侵伐,強者遠遁,弱者請服”,北疆也得以安定。

         

        景初元年(237年),遼東公孫淵反魏,自立為燕王。此年,曹叡令司馬懿攻遼東,司馬懿遂帶兵四萬,和牛金、胡遵等出征遼東,大破燕軍,殺公孫淵,成功收復遼東。

        曹叡還用心制詩度曲。他征召文士置于崇文館,鼓勵其文學創作。曹叡能詩文,善樂府,與其祖父曹操、父曹丕并稱魏之“三祖”。

        1、魏明帝曹叡:因仁而立編訂新律的甄宓之子

        2、魏明帝曹叡:諸葛亮北伐與曹魏征遼東

        3、魏明帝曹叡:大興土木與臨終托孤司馬懿


        上一節:魏文帝曹丕 :文武雙全的曹魏開國君主

        下一節:齊王曹芳:高平陵事變與三馬同槽的魏廢帝

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