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        歡迎訪問華夏歷史網

        華夏歷史網_中國歷史故事_中國歷史朝代順序表_揭秘隱藏的歷史真相

        馬謖究竟怎么死的

        時間:2018-06-29 15:48來源:華夏歷史網 點擊:

        馬謖   

        諸葛亮揮淚斬馬謖的故事家喻戶曉。《三國演義》第九十五回描寫,諸葛亮為奪取天下大業,于公元228年發動了一場北伐曹魏的戰爭。此次戰役,諸葛亮兵分三路:一路是由趙云、鄧芝帶軍占據箕谷;一路由諸葛亮親率十萬大軍突襲祁山;另外一路由馬謖鎮守戰略要地街亭。

        馬謖出兵街亭之前,曾立下軍令狀,表示“若有差失”,則“乞斬全家”。但是,馬謖率兵到達街亭之后,忽視了諸葛亮“靠山近水安營扎寨”的囑咐,不顧副將王平“魏軍斷我水源”的警告,屯兵于山頭。反而還自信地說:兵法有云“居高臨下,勢如破竹”,“置之死地而后生”。最終,馬謖被曹魏名將張郃圍困于山頭,斷其水糧,馬謖兵敗而回。

        馬謖究竟怎么死的_馬謖是因為街亭失守而死的嗎

        馬謖失守街亭,戰局驟變,使諸葛亮被迫退回漢中。諸葛亮北伐曹魏的計劃也隨之破產。為此,諸葛亮下令將馬謖革職入獄,斬首示眾。斬首之時,全軍落淚,諸葛亮也失聲痛哭,這就是有名的“諸葛亮揮淚斬馬謖”。

        但是,根據正史《三國志》記載:“謖逃亡,朗知情不舉;亮恨之,免官還成都。”馬謖兵敗街亭之后,并沒有回營領罪,而是畏罪潛逃了。

        歷史學者朱大渭在《馬謖被殺真相》一文中也指出,馬謖被斬的主因就是失街亭。馬謖自作主張,以至于最后慘敗而歸,并直接導致此次出擊祈山的戰果——隴右三郡得而復失,無奈之下大軍退回漢中。對于一個軍隊來說,“軍紀如山”,違反軍紀的人必須被處死。況且,按照軍中的法規,如果將士臨陣脫逃,也是必須要被處死的。馬謖所犯的錯誤并不是一個小小的錯誤。馬謖的失敗來源于對軍紀的藐視,再加上兵敗潛逃之罪,所以“罪在必誅”。

        對于朱大渭先生的觀點,許多人并不認同。他們認為,諸葛亮斬馬謖的主因不在于失街亭,失街亭只是一個導火索而已。真正的原因在于馬謖在戰前、戰時、戰后的頤指氣使、妄自吹噓的表現。馬謖戰前還立下軍令狀,表示若失街亭,自愿領罪而死,但戰后卻畏罪潛逃。

        此外,史學界對諸葛亮斬馬謖的真實性也提出了質疑。據《諸葛亮傳》記載,諸葛亮“戮謖以謝眾”;《王平傳》中又載,“丞相亮即誅馬謖及將軍張休、李盛”。可知,馬謖的確是諸葛亮下令處死的。但是據《馬謖傳》記載,“謖下獄物故,即病死獄中”,馬謖被下令斬首,但是在斬首之前就病死獄中。這才是真正的馬謖之死。

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